Chubb5, and M. Min5 1 Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Landleven 12, 9747 AD Groningen, The Netherlands 2 School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, King’s Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3FF, UK Posted by Will Baird at 8:00 AM. Hot Jupiters were the first exoplanets to be discovered around main sequence stars and astonished us with their close-in orbits. They are a prime example of how exoplanets have challenged our textbook, solar-system inspired story of how planetary systems form and evolve. The hot Jupiter HD 209458b is one of the most favorable targets … 2011; Thorngren & Fortney 2018). Molecular species in planetary atmospheres provide key insights into their atmospheric processes and formation conditions. Evidence for chromium hydride in the atmosphere of Hot Jupiter WASP-31b M. Based on current observations I made a ‘back of the envelope’ calculation and found it would take at least an order of magnitude longer than the age of the universe for the planet to boil away. Hot Jupiters formed beyond the frost line, as in our solar system, and migrated inward due to interaction with the solar nebula ... present around at least 99% of all stars. We have evidence for non-uniform clouds through phase curve observations of hot Jupiters (and brown dwarfs), where we observe how the reflected starlight from the planet changes as the planet orbits its host star.However, various difficulties with obtaining phase curve measurements make this method of probing cloud cover difficult to generalize to the vast majority of exoplanets. (At a distance of about 500 million miles from the Sun, Jupiter, by comparison, takes 12 years to complete an orbit.) 2016). A new study from Cornell University shows that when the "Hot Jupiters" approach their host star, the planet can force the star’s spin axis to precess much like a wobbling, spinning top. Extremely irradiated hot Jupiters also have some of the most inﬂated radii, which interior and evolution models struggle to reproduce (Laughlin et al. predicted that atmospheres of hot giant exoplanets should contain copious amounts of these molecules and can, therefore, provide critical insights into planetary formation (Madhusudhan et al. According to new Cornell research published in Science, these large, gaseous exoplanets can make their suns wob They are the size of Jupiter, or larger, but are so close to their star they complete one full orbit in a matter of days – or even hours. Hot Jupiters that have been observed to be venting material do so at a very small rate, relative to the size of the planet. For example, the Ly- Based on current evidence, how common are planetary systems? Braam1,2,3?, F.F.S. whether hot Jupiters can form in situ, and if not, how they migrated to their current location, is made especially acute by short-period hot Jupiters. In recent years, high-resolution Doppler spectroscopy in the near-infrared has allowed detections of H 2 O and CO in the atmospheres of several hot Jupiters. Statistical evidence for temperature inversions in ultra-hot Jupiters The thermal structure of hot gas giant exoplanet atmospheres is likely to be inverted for the hottest planets, a class of planets known as ultra-hot Jupiters. These systems may be undergoing a stalled version of tidal migration that produces warm Jupiters over hot Jupiters, and provide evidence for a population of multi-planet systems that are not flat and have been sculpted by Kozai-Lidov oscillations. For want of a better word, astronomers simply call these planets "hot Jupiters." van der Tak1,4, K.L. “Hot Jupiters” are currently the most intensively ... (HST) provide evidence for com-plex physical processes in the gaseous envelopes (at-mospheres) of these planets.